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@PhDThesis{Mendonša:2005:InReAn,
               author = "Mendon{\c{c}}a, Renata Weissmann Borges",
                title = "Estudo das trocas horizontais e verticais de energia durante 
                         epis{\'o}dios de ZCAS: influ{\^e}ncia da resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         das an{\'a}lises e dos modelos e da parametriza{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         convec{\c{c}}{\~a}o",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2005",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2005-06-23",
             keywords = "Energia, modos normais, modelo de circula{\c{c}}{\~a}o geral 
                         atmosf{\'e}rica, zona de converg{\^e}ncia do Atl{\^a}ntico Sul, 
                         parametriza{\c{c}}{\~a}o de convec{\c{c}}{\~a}o, atmospheric 
                         energy sources, atmospheric general circulation models, 
                         Am{\'e}rica do Sul, convection clouds, parameterization.",
             abstract = "As trocas horizontais e verticais de energia para um composto de 
                         sete epis{\'o}dios de Zona de Converg{\^e}ncia do Atl{\^a}ntico 
                         Sul (ZCAS) foram estudadas a partir das an{\'a}lises do National 
                         Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) com 
                         resolu{\c{c}}{\~o}es T062L28, T126L28 e T170L42, utilizando a 
                         teoria de decomposi{\c{c}}{\~a}o em modos normais descrita em 
                         Kasahara e Puri (1981). O estudo foi dividido em duas partes: uma 
                         observacional, onde foi realizada uma an{\'a}lise energ{\'e}tica 
                         do composto de ZCAS, considerando-se a parti{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         vertical de energia entre os modos externos e internos, e as 
                         interfer{\^e}ncias entre os modos horizontais de 
                         oscila{\c{c}}{\~a}o Rossby, Kelvin, Misto Rossby-Gravidade, 
                         Gravidade Oeste e Leste; e uma parte de modelagem, em que se 
                         avaliou o desempenho do Modelo Global do Centro de Previs{\~a}o 
                         de Tempo e Estudos Clim{\'a}ticos (CPTEC) em simular a 
                         energ{\'e}tica modal para o composto de ZCAS, enfatizando-se a 
                         influ{\^e}ncia da resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o espacial do Modelo e de 
                         diferentes parametriza{\c{c}}{\~o}es de convec{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         profunda: Kuo, Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) e Grell. Observou-se 
                         um m{\'a}ximo de porcentagem de energia total (em torno de 60%) 
                         para os modos internos 4 a 7, com alturas equivalentes entre 100 e 
                         600 metros, especialmente sobre grande parte da Am{\'e}rica do 
                         Sul central e pr{\'o}ximo ao equador, incluindo a regi{\~a}o da 
                         ZCAS; e um m{\'a}ximo secund{\'a}rio para a categoria de modos 
                         externos (n=1 a 3), mais significativo em latitudes altas e 
                         diminuindo em dire{\c{c}}{\~a}o ao equador. Para a 
                         parti{\c{c}}{\~a}o horizontal de energia, as maiores 
                         contribui{\c{c}}{\~o}es foram obtidas para as 
                         auto-intera{\c{c}}{\~o}es dos modos Rossby e Kelvin e 
                         intera{\c{c}}{\~o}es (produto cruzado) entre os modos 
                         Rossby-Kelvin, em todas as categorias de modos verticais, sendo 
                         estas {\'u}ltimas respons{\'a}veis pelas interfer{\^e}ncias 
                         construtivas de energia na regi{\~a}o da ZCAS. As 
                         intera{\c{c}}{\~o}es de energia entre os modos verticais 
                         mostraram um aumento da porcentagem de energia dos Baixos 
                         N{\'{\i}}veis para a Estratosfera, com m{\'a}xima 
                         interfer{\^e}ncia positiva (negativa) de energia em Altos 
                         N{\'{\i}}veis (Estratosfera), para os modos internos 4 a 7. Os 
                         resultados dos experimentos de modelagem mostraram que as 
                         previs{\~o}es utilizando os esquemas de convec{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         profunda Kuo, RAS e Grell foram semelhantes entre si e 
                         apresentaram uma boa concord{\^a}ncia em rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o aos 
                         padr{\~o}es obtidos na parte observacional. O emprego de 
                         diferentes esquemas de convec{\c{c}}{\~a}o profunda n{\~a}o 
                         apresentou impactos significativos na parti{\c{c}}{\~a}o e 
                         intera{\c{c}}{\~a}o de energia entre os modos verticais e 
                         horizontais. Um impacto maior foi obtido com o aumento da 
                         resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o vertical das An{\'a}lises e do Modelo, de 
                         28 para 42 n{\'{\i}}veis, em que um maior n{\'u}mero de modos 
                         internos apresentam um papel relevante nas trocas horizontais e 
                         verticais de energia. ABSTRACT: The horizontal and vertical energy 
                         exchanges for a composite of seven South Atlantic Convergence Zone 
                         (SACZ) episodes were studied by expansion into three-dimensional 
                         normal mode functions (Kasahara and Puri, 1981) using the National 
                         Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) analyses with T062L28, 
                         T126L28 e T170L42 resolutions. In the first part of this study 
                         (observational part), energetics analyses for the SACZ composite 
                         were performed with an emphasis on the vertical energy partition 
                         between external and internal modes and on the energy interactions 
                         within and between various horizontal oscillation modes, such as 
                         Rossby, Kelvin, Mixed Rossby-Gravity and West and East Gravity 
                         modes. In the second part (modelling experiments), the performance 
                         of the CPTEC Global Model in simulating the modal energetics for 
                         the SACZ composite was evaluated, emphasizing the influence of the 
                         model resolution and the three different deep convection 
                         parameterizations: Kuo, Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) and Grell. 
                         A maximum share of the total energy (about 60%) was found in the 
                         4th to 7th internal modes with equivalent depths between 100 and 
                         600 meters, especially over the great part of the central South 
                         America and near equator including the SACZ region. As the 
                         latitude increases, the energy is distributed towards the lower 
                         order modes (n = 1 to 3) with the external modes category becoming 
                         dominant at higher latitudes. For the horizontal energy partition, 
                         the most expressive contributions were obtained for the 
                         auto-interactions of the Rossby and Kelvin modes and for Rossby- 
                         Kelvin cross interactions in all vertical modes categories. The 
                         Rossby-Kelvin cross interactions were the main process for 
                         constructive energy interferences in the SACZ region. The vertical 
                         modes interactions indicated that the percentage of total energy 
                         increases from low levels to the stratosphere with maximum 
                         positive (negative) interferences in high levels (stratosphere), 
                         in the 4th to 7th internal modes. The results from the modelling 
                         experiments showed that the model predictions using the Kuo, RAS 
                         and Grell deep convection schemes were similar with each other, 
                         and had a good agreement with the patterns obtained in the 
                         observational part. The use of different deep convection schemes 
                         did not present significant impact in the partition and 
                         interaction of energy between vertical and horizontal modes. A 
                         greater impact was obtained increasing the vertical resolution of 
                         the analyses and the model from 28 to 42 levels. A greater number 
                         of internal modes shows a relevant role in the horizontal and 
                         vertical energy exchanges, in terms of representing the observed 
                         characteristics.",
            committee = "Satyamurty, Prakki (presidente) and Bonatti, Jos{\'e} Paulo 
                         (orientador) and Figueroa, Silvio Nilo and Silva Dias, Pedro Leite 
                         da and Gandu, Adilson Wagner",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Study of the horizontal and vertical energy exchanges during SACZ 
                         episodes: influence of the resolution of the analyses and the 
                         models and the convection parameterization",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "206",
                  ibi = "6qtX3pFwXQZGivnJSY/HfKoR",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/6qtX3pFwXQZGivnJSY/HfKoR",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "2019, Dec. 11"
}


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